Lodging

and

Travel Information

can be found here for CAC21!

As of November 25, 2020, we are planning on VCAC21 to be our second Virtual and Live conference due to Covid-19.

April 21 – 25, 2021

We are planning on CAC22 to LIVE and In-Person at the Hotel Bellwether

April 21-25, 2021

Please check back for updates!

The 2021 Chanticleer Authors Conference

and

the 2020 Chanticleer International

Book Awards Ceremony

will take place

VIRTUALLY  and LIVE via ZOOM

from the Hotel Bellwether, Bellingham, Wash.

Core Dates are Wednesday – Sunday, April 21 – 25, 2021

Sessions start at 9:30 a.m. PST

CIBA Ceremonies daily starting at 5 p.m. PST

CIBA 2020 Grand Prize Ceremony – Sunday, April 25, 2021

– starts at 5:30 p.m.

MASTER WRITING CLASSES and Workshops TBD

Learn from the Best!

VCAC21 HEADLINERS

Featuring Cathy Ace

Crime and Mystery Writer

Cathy Ace is an entertaining speaker; over the years she’s chatted engagingly, made complex Powerpoint presentations, and read her work or hosted and been Master of Ceremony for various events and conferences. She’s done this at venues as diverse as a plant nursery in Canada, a dazzling Livery Hall in the City of London, and a grade 12 schoolroom. Having run her own post-graduate marketing communications training company in the UK for a decade, and having traveled the world as a management trainer, she’s now able to take all that experience and be an “edu-taining” speaker who is funny, insightful, knows her stuff and can speak about topics ranging from the broad base of The History of Mystery, to more intimate and personal topics such as how she plans, plots and writes her bestselling mysteries.

BIG NEWS FOR CATHY…Her Cait Morgan Mysteries have been optioned for TV by the UK production company Free@Last TV, which is responsible for the hit TV series based on MC Beaton’s Agatha Raisin books (Hamish MacBeth series). The same company has optioned The Wrong Boy, with plans for it to be broadcast as a three-part miniseries, in Welsh and English. 

As of November 25, 2020, the following presenters are scheduled to present at VCAC21. Please check back for the latest updates! 

J.D. Barker, Robert Dugoni, Chris Humphreys, Scott Steindorff, Paul Cutsinger, and others.

Here is what some attendees are saying the 2020 Virtual Chanticleer Authors Conference – just a few of the many kudos shared with us.

 

“Thank you for the marvelous event Chanticleer put on. I’ve been touting Chanticleer and the awards given to me on all the sights on which Abigail’s Window is being promoted.” – Susan Lynn Solomon, author of Abigail’s Window and 1st place category winner Mystery & Mayhem Awards and GRAND PRIZE winner of the Paranormal Awards

 

“I am so proud to be awarded First in Place in Little Peeps for A Tall Tale About Dachshunds in Costumes! Thanks to ALL involved to make the Chanticleer Conference and Awards top notch!” – Kizzie Jones, author of A Tall Tale About Dachshunds in Costumes and 1st place category winner Little Peeps Awards

 

“I’m so excited to have this award.  The conference was very informative, well-executed and worth every penny.” – Carolyn Watkins, author of The Knock and 1st place category winner Little Peeps and Gertrude Warner Awards

 

“Now THAT was an incredible conference. Can’t wait to take part in another one (in person) at the Hotel Bellwether in the future. Thanks so much for all the hard work that must have gone into it.” – Nancy Thorne, author of Victorian Town and 1st place category winner Dante Rossetti Awards

 

“Thank you! Fantastic! It was great meeting everyone virtually in the Zoom conference. I really enjoyed it and appreciate all your incredibly hard work and dedication. It’s invaluable to indie authors that organization like yours support us.” – Palmer Pickering, author of Moon Deeds and 1st place category Paranormal Awards

 

“Thanks again for the positive experience during the virtual conference; you and your team put on a wiz-bang, professional show and I learned a lot.” – JI Rogers, author of The Korpes Agenda and 1st place category Cygnus Awards

 

“Thank you again and again for a wonderful two weeks! Tremendous range of content and presentation. I enjoyed everything and learned much that I can apply now.” – Judy Santamaria, author of Jetty Cat Palace Cafe

“Your workshops have been incredibly instructive, and I’m greatly looking forward to the next one with Donald Maass.” – John Middleton Simpson

“Thank you again for all your hard work on this year’s conference. Truly you three are on the cutting edge and allowing us to all see into the future of publishing. And thank you for including such an excellent array of presentations – broad-based and informative on so many levels.” – Gail Noble-Sanderson, author of The Lavender Meuse Trilogy

 

“I’m writing to say how much I enjoyed the conference this year.” – John  W. Feist, author of Blind Trust

“Amazing job you did on presenting a VCAC!”  – JP Kenna, author of Joel Emmanuel
“Hi Kiffer, Well, you guys did it! In my opinion, you pulled off a really good awards ceremony and I enjoyed attending by Zoom. I look forward to next year, in-person, fingers crossed.” – Tim Cole, science fiction author
“Hi Kiffer, I’m really enjoying my first (V)CAC! Thanx for a great conference!Very much appreciate all the work you and Sharon have done getting this conference and classes set up for everyone!” – Scott Benting, author of Search for the Armor of God
“How wonderful that the virtual conference was such a roaring success! You should be so very proud – and you are probably relieved as well! Thank you so much for all your hard work and making it wonderful for all the attendees!” – Alex Paul, author of the Middle-Grade series — Arkeen Freeth
“We had a blast at the Chanticleer Authors Conference—held in our living room…Since in-person conferences are on an indefinite hold, Chanticleer moved everything to Zoom and did a wonderful job at that…a good time was had by all. We missed the scenery and human connection, but were grateful Chanticleer was able to pull off such a great virtual conference. Hopefully, we can toast in person next year.” – V & D Povall, authors of Jackal in the Mirror

 


 

The following were presenters at VCAC20 and as of today, November 25, 2020, they will be back for VCAC21! Check back often for the latest updates to the presenter roster. 

Robert Dugoni, author, a gentleman, and a mentor to writers!

  • Robert Dugoni, International Best-selling Thriller Author. His books are sold worldwide in more than 25 countries. His current work, The Eighth Sister is currently in development with Lionsgate Productions for 11-episodes for TV.

JD Barker, Master of Suspense

  • J. D. Barker, Master of Suspense. J.D. Barker successfully published his debut as an indie and sold enough copies to land on the radar of the traditional publishers in a BIG way including seven-figure advances, two feature films, and a television program.

Scott Steindorff, A-List Film Producer and former US Ski Team!

  • Scott Steindorff, CEO of Stone Village Productions, will join us again and share the latest insider information for the Film Industry. He is currently in production for a film adaption of Station Eleven by Emily St. John Mandel. Station Eleven will also be adapted into a 10-episode miniseries that will premiere on HBO Max. The miniseries will star Mackenzie Davis as Kirsten and Himesh Patel as Jeevan.

Paul Cutsinger – Head of Amazon’s Alexa Project

  • Paul Cutsinger – Head of Amazon Alexa Labs– (+100 million devices in use) Voice-enabled technology and how it affects storytelling and the publishing industry. ●Why Voice-Enabled Technology is Here to Stay ● The Publishing Industry and Voice Technology ● Storytelling and Voice Technology ● Audio-books and Voice

  • CC Humphreys makes an encore appearance at VCAC! We miss his humor and wit and valuable insight into the publishing world.

Chris Humphreys is a British actor, playwright, novelist, and swordsman. Born in Toronto, Ontario. His father, Peter Humphreys was an actor, writer, and Battle of Britain fighter pilot. His mother, Ingegerd Holter, was a spy in the Norwegian resistance. Chris is also the grandson of actor Cecil Humphreys. Chris (aka C.C.) has published 18 novels in the genres of historical fiction and fantasy fiction.

  • Anita Michalski, Hindenburg Systems
  • Jonathan Hurley, Hindenburg Systems

Learn from the Best!

VCAC PRESENTERS

Please check back often for the latest line-up of presenters. This is accurate as of Nov. 25, 2020 but can change.

  • Please visit the VCAC 21 Faculty Page for more detailed information about the presenters.
  • The presentation schedule will be posted in mid-March 2021.
  • The CIBA Awards Ceremonies schedule TBD.  Details are added weekly.
Jessica Page Morrell

Jessica Page Morrell – Top Editor and inspirational teacher of writing craft and co-host with Kiffer on the Word Nerds podcasts.

  • Jessica Page Morrell’s writing craft sessions will help you to take your work to the next level. She is a highly sought after developmental editor. She is known for explaining the hows and whys of what makes for excellent writing and for sharing very clear examples that examine the technical aspects of writing that emphases layering and subtext. Her books on writing craft are considered “a must-have” for any serious writer’s toolkit.

Donald Maass, founder and president of the Maass Literary Agency and always in demand teacher of writing craft

  • Donald Maass (New York, NY) heads the Donald Maass Literary Agency in New York City, which represents more than 150 novelists and sells more than 150 novels every year to publishers in America and overseas. He is a past president of the Association of Authors Representatives, Inc., and is the author of several books writing craft books. 

    Learn From the Best!

    Simon-Pierre Marion, CEO of Bookchain by Scenarex

      • Simon-Pierre Marion – CEO of Bookchain by Scenarex – a brand new platform to publish and distribute ebooks on Bookchain, the online secure selling platform that allows you to retain your royalties.

        Amy Stapleton

        Amy Stapleton, Co-Founder of Chatables, a publisher of voice-first conversational stories and tools to support authors. Prior to Chatables, Stapleton founded Tellables and served as a voice app designer,  writer, and editor of content for the Tellables Amazon Alexa story experiences “Tricky Genie” and “My Box of Chocolates. Stapleton retired from a career at NASA to pursue her vision of transforming talking devices into a platform for engaging new story experiences.

        Wayne Richard

      • Wayne Richard, Co-founder of Chatables and publisher of Voice First conversational stories and tools to support authors. Wayne has published a series of “advisor” skills on Alexa. He is embracing the voice user interface as the next new tech powerhouse.

      Janice Ellis, Ph.D.

      •  Janice S. Ellis, Ph.D., the award-winning author has written a column for newspapers, radio, and now online, for the last 30 years where she analyzes educational, political, social, and economic issues across race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. Janice Ellis holds a Ph.D. in Communication Arts, and two Master of Arts degrees, one in Communications Arts and a second in Political Science, all from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

      Diane Garland is the master of continuity editing and world-building.

      • Diane Garland – Founder of YOUR WORLD KEEPER editorial services – the secret to writing a successful book series

      Tana Hope

      • Tana Hope is a certified Perfect Posture Instructor and a certified 3MAP practitioner (Acupuncture Meridian, Muscle, Massage, Anatomy & Physiology).  Tana will help people understand the basic fundamental principles of how body functions and to learn how to operate the body in harmony and operate wisely based on the body design principals to produce maximum performance and longevity.

      Kaylin McFarren

      • Kaylin McFarren has received 50 national literary awards, in addition to a prestigious RWA Golden Heart Award nomination for FLAHERTY’S CROSSING – a book she and her oldest daughter, New York Times/USA Today best-selling author Kristina McMorris, co-wrote in 2008 and was then opted and made into a Hallmark film. Kaylin won Grand Prize in the CIBA CLUE Awards for her psychological thriller, Twisted Threads. 

      Elana Mugdan

      • ElanaMugdan is a proven expert in marketing, cos-playing, and book tours. She will participate in our Market Panel and discuss out-of-the-box marketing techniques that have expanded her audience. As the Vitamin Water Challenge Winner, even more market space has been added to her already impressive resume’. If you are struggling with ideas on how to promote your work, you will not want to miss this panel!

      Pamela Beason P.I. and Author of the Four Mysteries Series

      • Pamela Beason – author of 14 mysteries and experiences BookBub user. She will share her knowledge of Bookbub and how to write a sustained series with us.

      Janet Shawgo

      • Janet Shawgo started writing in 2009 and has five books published to date. Her Look for Me series has some thirty awards and acknowledgments, including the Grand Prize in the CHATELAINE Awards for Find Me Again. 

      Sean Dwyer

      • Sean Dwyer is an award-winning novelist and Renaissance man. He has been a writer since he discovered that people strung words together to tell stories. He is also a polyglot and has written creatively in Spanish, German, French, Portuguese, Latin, and Irish. Sean has finished three novel projects and published stories in several journals, anthologies, and Chanticleer Magazine

      Janet Oakley

      • J. L. Oakley writes historical fiction that spans the mid-19th century to WW II with characters standing up for something in their own time and place. When not writing, she demonstrates 19th-century folkways in the schools and at San Juan Island National Park. She also has a cat who thinks she’s editing.

      Christopher Leibig

      • Christopher Leibig is a criminal defense attorney and an award-winning novelist. His last novel, Almost Mortal, a legal thriller about a serial killer with a biblical/metaphysical twist, was a best seller in the legal thriller category on Amazon in the Spring of 2017. Almost Mortal won many national awards, including the Grand Prize in Paranormal Fiction at the 2017 Chanticleer International Book Awards (And First Place Category Winner for Mystery and Fantasy), Best Religious Fiction of 2016 at the Next Generation Independent Books Awards, and the Pencraft Award for Best Legal Thriller of 2017. Chris is a full-time criminal defense attorney and former public defender in Alexandria, Virginia, and regularly handles serious criminal cases throughout Virginia.

        Tina Sloan

        • Tina Sloan is best known for her twenty-six-year role on CBS’s soap The Guiding Light and as the author of Changing Shoes: Getting Older – Not Old – with Style, Humor, and Grace based on her autobiographical one-woman show. The Changing Shoes book release coincided with the launch of the show in New York, which went on to grace stages across the U.S. and in London. Her debut novel Chasing Cleopatra, a suspenseful romantic thriller features an irresistible heroine.

          Avanti Centrae

          • Avanti Centrae is the author of the international award-winning VanOps thriller series. The Lost Power took home a genre grand prize ribbon at the Chanticleer International Book Awards (CIBA) 2017, and an Honorable Mention at the 2018 Hollywood Book Festival. Her work has been compared to that of James Rollins, Steve Berry, Dan Brown, and Clive Cussler. She resides in Northern California with her family and German Shepherds.

            Joy Ross Davis

            • Joy Ross Davis After a twenty-five-year career as a college English professor, she retired and traveled to Ireland where she worked as a writer and photographer, publishing numerous travel articles and photos for a travel agency. She has been a contributing feature writer for a local newspaper and has published articles in Southern literary magazines. Her first novel, Countenance, won the Gold Medal for Excellence from Readers’ Favorites. Her newest novel The Madwoman of Preacher’s Cove won the Grand Prize in Paranormal Fiction in 2018 from Chanticleer Author Awards in Seattle and was picked up for publication by Wyatt-MacKenzie Publishing.

              Gail Nobel-Sanderson

              • Gail Nobel-Sanderson worked as a Speech-Language Pathologist and published many educational programs for children with special needs. She now turns her attention to the writing of historical fiction. She published her first historical fiction novel, The Lavender House in Meuse. In September 2017, the sequel to her first book, The Passage Home to Meuse, was published. She is currently working on her next book in this series and a book of short stories.

                Denise Ditto Satterfield

                • Denise Ditto Satterfield is a multi-award winning novelist who specializes in Children’s Literature. Denise is a graduate from the University of Houston-Downtown, Magna Cum Laude with a degree in Professional Writing. She published two short stories in her university literary magazine, The Bayou Review, 2001 and 2007 Edition, and won First Place in the Creative Writing Contest for her short story, Summer Breeze.  Denise won two Grand Prizes in consecutive years in the Little Peeps Awards for her work in The Tooth Collector books.

                  Barbara Jean Hicks

                    • Barbara Jean Hicks is an award-winning author, storyteller, speaker, and educator. She’s published eight picture books, taught at the preschool, middle school, and community college levels, and worked in an urban elementary school as author-in-residence, program facilitator, and parent educator. She has also written adult novels and novellas and marketing copy for numerous businesses and trade publishers and worked as an editor and proofreader.

                      Wendy Delaney

                      • Wendy Delaney is the author of the award-winning Working Stiffs Mystery series and a sought-after “plotstormer” who loves to help other writers develop their storylines.  With over twenty years in the business of being an author, Wendy speaks at regional writers’ conferences and has coached writers to help them map out their stories as well as their author goals. As a veteran of both the traditionally published and indie author worlds, she has a wealth of experience she loves to share with other writers.

                      P.J. Devlin

                      • P. J. Devlin tells stories about relationships. Her characters meet at the intersection of acceptance and rejection and their choices impel them to understand what it means to be human. Whether writing of a witch, a dwarf, an elderly woman, white and black teenagers, or a black indentured servant, Devlin’s characters exist in the Philadelphia of her birth and share her love of the Wissahickon Creek.

                      Kelly Abell

                      • Kelly Abell is the author of internationally best-selling romances and romantic suspense. Her characters are filled with passion, power, and purpose in predicaments that keep a reader turning the pages. She lives in Florida where she helps other writers by teaching workshops and sharing writing tips.
                      • MJ Evans

                      • MJ Evans has always loved writing, and for seventeen years she coached Odyssey of the Mind and Destination Imagination teams, forming one-act plays for children.

                      Sara Stamey

                      • Sarah Stamey is an award-winning novelist who loves treasure hunting, teaching scuba in the Caribbean, backpacking worldwide, operating a nuclear reactor, and owning a farm in Southern Chile – and teaching creative writing at Western Washington University.

                      Jacquie Rogers

                      • Jacquie Rogers is a former software designer, campaign manager, deli clerk, and cow milker. Her 2007 release, Faery Special Romances, won the Fall NOR Award for Best Print Sci-fi/Fantasy Romance and final-ed several other contests. Jacquie won 4 Will Rogers Gold Medallions, the Laramie Award Grand Prize Winner, and a RttA Winner for books in her, Honey Beaulieu, Man Hunter series.

                        Michelle Rene

                        • Michelle Rene is a creative advocate and the author of a number of published works of historical fiction and speculative fiction. She is the author of novels, short stories, essays, and video games. She has won multiple indie awards. Her novel, Hour Glass, won Chanticleer Review’s “Best Book of the Year” award in 2018.

                          Peter Greene

                          • Peter Greene is the author of The Adventures of Jonathan Moore books, a three-volume series including Warship Poseidon, Castle of Fire, and Paladin’s War. Warship Poseidon was awarded the 2012 Adventure Writer’s Competition Grandmaster Award, the “Clive” trophy, sponsored by the Clive Cussler Collector’s Society. Greene won Grand Prize in the GOETHE Awards for Paladin’s War.

                              • Talking Crows Film Production Company is a full-service video production company specializing in story brand videos, live events, and human-interest profiles.

                              Please check back often as we continue to add presenters on a weekly basis. We will have more information about the presenters on the faculty page.

                              Don’t delay. Register Today. 


                                Here is what some attendees are saying the 2018 Chanticleer Authors Conference.

                                The testimonials, statements, and opinions presented on our website are applicable to the individuals depicted. Results will vary an may not be representative of the experience of others. The testimonials are voluntarily provided and are not paid, nor were they provided with free products, services, or any benefits in exchange for said statements. The testimonials are representative of Chanticleer’s customers but the exact results and experience will be unique and individual to each customer.

                                I wanted to say thank you for creating such a fabulous event. This was by far the most productive conference I have ever attended! Each workshop was packed with valuable information to help every author on their path to publication, no matter what their genre or where they are in their writing career. I look forward to attending next year! 

                                All the best,  Kim Davis A Game of Deceit

                                This conference and award dinner is the best I’ve ever attended. The conference showcased well-known authors and editors, and in each session, I learned something new that will help my writing. And the Awards Dinner! I can’t say enough about it. It was fantastic. Like attending the Oscars. Everything – all weekend – was so well done and thought out and ran so smoothly, you’d think Chanticleer had an army of 100 working for them. All of this against a beautiful water view setting in Bellingham, Washington. By far, the most fun I’ve ever had at a conference, and considering all the sessions, lunches, and dinners, etc., a great value.

                                Thank you! Elaine Williams Crockett

                                Thank you so much for all your work setting up the Chanticleer organization. Winning a Grand prize means more to me than I can express. I feel like a lottery winner. It’s a life-changing award that I expect will propel my new career.

                                Again, thank you! Avanti Centrae

                                I continue to be thrilled at the support and recognition from Chanticleer Reviews. I made two very good friends at the conference, and I learned valuable information, nitty-gritty stuff, that’s available nowhere else. What a class act! 

                                PJ Devlin

                                Many thanks for providing this wonderful opportunity to enable one’s book to reach higher in the eyes of the reading public

                                Cheers and best, Prue Batten

                                You continue to do a massive job so well. Congratulations on the growing success and reputation of the awards. And please extend my appreciation to your team. 

                                Warm wishes, Elisabeth Storrs, HNS Australiasia

                                Many thanks for the amazing conference, the wonderful sessions and guest speakers and the fabulous awards night. We had such fun, learnt a great deal and made some special friendships. 

                                Catherine Wilsons (A & T) – Australia 

                                Chanticleer is Awesome! 

                                Kari Rhyan 

                                I really want to thank you again for the incredible event last month. The Chanticleer community is very welcoming, and I’m happy to be a part of it! 

                                TK RIGGINS

                                My 10 second elevator pitch for why submit in a Chanticleer contest is quoting from Cool Hand Luke where he says, “Only Bastards and Cream rise to the top.” If you submit to Chanticleer you at least can find out whether your book has the potential of becoming cream. Your contest is open and inclusive, an admirable goal for writers and society as a whole. … And once again, thank you so so much for putting on this conference. I am telling my writer friends to submit and to plan on attending CAC2019.

                                 Alex Paul

                                Thank you so much for this amazing honor! It was truly a surreal and amazing moment to win. Still can barely believe it! Definitely one I’ll never forget! I’m so grateful to you and everyone that makes Chanticleer possible. I’ve never met a more dedicated, supportive group of book lovers. I will happily come to the conference next year to present and participate. Can’t wait.

                                Michelle Rene, HOUR GLASS

                                and there are more testimonials for CAC!

                                Check back for the latest news about CAC20

                                Join us at #CAC20 to learn to improve your book marketing and promotion skills, build your author brand, and sell more books, located at the beautiful Hotel Bellwether, at Squalicum Harbor on beautiful Bellingham Bay, in Bellingham, Washington conveniently located between Seattle and Vancouver, B.C.

                                A VIRTUAL Book Fair managed by Village Books!

                                During the conference, a Book Fair, open to the public, hosted by Village Books, will feature the books of attendees and presenters.

                                As an added bonus the best selling books of the weekend will be featured at both of Village Books locations!

                                Visit our Book Fair page for more details.

                                Jesikah Sundin Winning Reaction Prize 2014

                                Master Classes are available to non-conference attendees. Register here! 

                                Click here for CAC15’s Photos – see what you could be missing if you don’t register today!

                                Previous attendees had this to say:
                                “You made me, a first time author, feel like a writer. In addition, I found the conference unique, focused, and an amazing learning experience.” Nancy Adair, Bellingham
                                “Thanks for an amazing conference. It was a blast to meet so many talented people, and I learned a ton. I came home bursting with ideas for new stories as well as ways to better market and sell the ones I have. It was more than worth the cost of attending.”
                                Scott Smith, author of AN OUTCAST STATE, Hawaii

                                Read More Conference Testimonials

                                Please click on this link to see the six options available at this time.

                                Chanticleer Conference Tracks:

                                    • Marketing, Publicity, Platform (MPP) – Social media savvy, author websites, branding, driving discoverability, cultivating readership and gaining exposure in today’s market.
                                    • Sales Tools & Strategies (STS) – Sales Facilitators: Covers, Reviews, Early Readers, Pre-sales, etc. Applying business sense to sales strategies. Currency Exchange: Dollars for exposure.
                                    • Publishing, Production, Distribution (PPD) – Form & Design. Pitches & Concepts. Working with booksellers. Current Publishing Trends. New Digital Media. And More.
                                    • Story, Editing, Development (SED) – We’re writers. Naturally, we’re gonna talk about writing.
                                    • Organization, Motivation, Self-help (OMS) – Get your mind on the right page.
                                    • A Touch of Hollywood (ToH) – It wouldn’t be the West Coast without it.
                                    • Networking & Fun (NetFun) – Special events and networking opportunities.
                                    • Kaffee Klatsches (KK) – Informal gatherings led by some of our speakers and guests.

                                You do NOT have to be a published author to attend this conference!  Aspiring authors, and writers of all levels, will benefit immensely from this conference. We will also offer “writing concept” classes to get you on your way!

                                *Refunds are available until January 31, 2020 with a $25 deduction for administrative costs. Please email: admin@ChantiReviews.com for more information.
                                **Chanticleer Authors Conference 2020 reserves the right to cancel or change speakers and programs at anytime.

                                Meet other members of the Chanticleer Community of Authors and Readers at this fun and informative event featuring: